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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 10-17

Clinical Features and Predictors for Outcome in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19 Infection from Wuhan, China

1 Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China
2 Department of Critical Care Medicine, Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei, China
3 Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, China
4 Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinics, Rochester, MN, USA

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Zhiyong Peng
Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei
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DOI: 10.4103/jtccm.jtccm_28_20

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Objective: The information about the critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was limited and controversy. This study was to analyze the clinical feature and predictors for outcome in critically ill COVID-19. Design: This was a descriptive study from two hospitals. Setting: This study was conducted in intensive care units (ICUs) from university hospitals. Methods: Critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted in ICU from Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital from January 8 to February 20, 2020, were screened. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Clinical, laboratory data were collected with management strategies and outcomes. Sixty-eight critically ill patients were enrolled. Their median age was 64 (interquartile range, 54–72) years, and 67.65% were male. In this cohort, 44 (65%) patients survived for 28 days. The invasive mechanical ventilator was used in 51 (75%) patients, with 20 of them requiring prone positioning, and 17 switched to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The compliance scores of lungs on the day of intubation among survivors were higher than those in nonsurvivors (25.00 [13.50–39.00] vs. 17.00 [12.00–22.00], P = 0.01). The blood interlukin-6 (IL-6) levels at the ICU admission were significantly higher in nonsurvivors compared to survivors (71.27 [51.48–144.15] vs. 18.15 [7.55–68.02] ng/ml, P = 0.025). The heart rates, lung injury scale, and positive end-expiratory pressure were constantly higher for 10 days in nonsurvivors. The frequency of vasopressor uses and neuromuscular blockers was higher in nonsurvivors from day 5 to day 10 (P < 0.05). In the whole cohort, the most common complications were acute respiratory distress syndrome (95.59%), shock (48.53%), arrhythmia (33.82%), acute cardiac injury (33.82%), and acute kidney injury (27.94%). Multivariate analysis indicated that lower lung compliance at the day of intubation and higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) at ICU admission were related to higher mortality (P = 0.02 and 0.05, respectively). Conclusion: COVID-19-related critical illness predominantly affected old individuals and was characterized by severe hypoxemic respiratory failure, often requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation and rescue therapies. High APACHE II scores and low lung compliance indicated poor outcomes.

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