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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 90-95

Clinical Characteristics and Analysis of Factors Associated with Severe COVID-19 Patients in Liaoning, China: A Multicenter Retrospective Study

Department of Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Xiaochun Ma
Department of Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, No. 155, Nanjing North Street, Heping District, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning Provinc
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DOI: 10.4103/jtccm.jtccm_7_21

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Background: The prevalence of clinical manifestations in severe patients with COVID-19 was highly variable across region, populations, and assessment methods. We investigated the characteristics in patients with COVID-19 and the risk factors associated with severe cases and progression to severe patients during hospitalization. Methods: In this retrospective, multicenter observational study, we collected the clinical manifestations and laboratory regarding from 125 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in Liaoning province, China. The collected COVID-19 patients were divided into two groups, including nonsevere group and severe group which were according to the Chinese national guideline for COVID-19 diagnosis and treatment. Results: One hundred and twenty-five laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients from three centralized diagnosis and treatment centers were enrolled. The median age was 44 years old, 68 (54.4%) were male. One hundred and twelve (81.6%) patients were in nonsevere group and 23 (18.4%) were in severe group. The overall hospital mortality is 1.6%. About 34% patients had been to Wuhan, 35.2%patients had contact with confirmed COVID-19 patient in Wuhan. Thirty-five (28%) patients were local and 11 (8.8%) patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. About 20.8% of the patients had comorbidity, hypertension was the most common comorbidity (14.4%). Four patients changed from nonsevere to severe during hospitalization. Most patients were admitted in January and February (98.4%). The median hospital stay was 16 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 12–21). On admission, fever was the most common symptom (60.8%). Duration from onset symptom to hospitalization was 5 days (IQR, 2–8). Compared with nonsevere group, severe cases were associated with significant increased NE (74.19 ± 13.87 vs. 62.32 ± 12.80, P = 0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP) (33.27 ± 38.60 vs. 15.53 ± 29.35, P = 0.003), D2 (1.52 ± 2.83 vs. 0.44 ± 0.93, P = 0.021), lower lymphocyte count (0.81 ± 0.41 vs. 2.32 ± 6.63, P = 0.042), and lymphocyte percentage (LY%) (15.94 ± 10.47 vs. 28.83 ± 11.66, P < 0.001). Kaletra and Chinese medicine were most widely used, the proportion was 61.6% and 66.4%, respectively. Age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.030, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99–1.09; P = 0.042), fever on admission (OR = 5.23, 95% CI, 1.32–20.79; P = 0.019), increased NE (OR = 10.53, 95% CI, 3.55–31.25; P = 0.000), and decreased LY% (OR = 7.72, 95% CI, 2.61–22.83; P = 0.000) were independently associated with the severe COVID-19. Age (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01–1.23; P = 0.025), myalgia (OR, 30.82; 95% CI, 1.58–600.16; P = 0.024), and CRP (OR = 1.04, 95% CI, 1.004–1.073; P = 0.030) were associated with higher risk of development to severe COVID-19 cases. Conclusions: 1. Identification of individuals at risk for severe COVID-19 after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection is important 2. The effects of conventional methods on predicting those patients who will go on to develop severe COVID-19 are limited 3. Age, fever on admission, increased NE, and decreased LY% were independently associated with the severe COVID-19 4. Age, myalgia, and CRP were independent risk factors associated with development to severe COVID-19.

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