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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 5: Diaphragm ultrasound and measurement of diaphragm thickening fraction. On the left, a high frequency probe is positioned between the 9th and 10th intercostal space at the level of the mid-axillary line. On the right, M-mode is applied to calculate diaphragm thickening fraction (Tfdi) in two consecutive breaths (A-B and C-D). The diaphragm is seen as an hypoechogenic structure surrounded by two hyperechogenic layers. Tfdi is calculated using the formula: Tfdi = (Thickness at end-inspiration [B and D for breath 1 and 2] − Thickness at end-expiration [A and C for breath 1 and 2])/Thickness at end-expiration (A and C for breath 1 and 2)

Figure 5: Diaphragm ultrasound and measurement of diaphragm thickening fraction. On the left, a high frequency probe is positioned between the 9<sup>th</sup> and 10<sup>th</sup> intercostal space at the level of the mid-axillary line. On the right, M-mode is applied to calculate diaphragm thickening fraction (Tfdi) in two consecutive breaths (A-B and C-D). The diaphragm is seen as an hypoechogenic structure surrounded by two hyperechogenic layers. Tfdi is calculated using the formula: Tfdi = (Thickness at end-inspiration [B and D for breath 1 and 2] − Thickness at end-expiration [A and C for breath 1 and 2])/Thickness at end-expiration (A and C for breath 1 and 2)